So I will stay with drinking water or maybe something bitter – a really bad espresso to wake me to the reality, because bitter it is.
I am old enough to have grown up, seeing the 1973 War, the 1972 Munich Olympic Terrorist Attacks, bombings of Jewish and Israeli sites throughout the 1970s and 1980s and the 1980s Lebanon War, Sabra and Shatila, then, the first Intifada and in my 20s, how Rabin and Arafat came together.
I never had any doubt, nor do I have today, about the importance of Israel, a state where Jewish people could live and be more in charge of their destiny than anywhere else, in a country that stands on the basis of Jewish history and religion, as a pluralist democratic and diverse country. But I had to learn that there were Palestinians (the concept was not one I grew up with, then, all were simply terrorists that hated and murdered us Jews) and that the versions of history people close to us told us, were only one part of the story, that there was another side. I support for a long time now the two-state solution.
Believe it or not, with a dose of scepticism that I had as a German-born person, that history had more on offer, I learned in Israel itself, most of all, from open and progressive Jewish Israeli teachers and people who knew a fuller more complicated history. I had been as a young adult to a Palestinian village (I was not allowed by the school administration, and did so nevertheless), and they gave me espresso to drink. Nothing happened to me, but the taste of the coffee was strong and bitter, only sweetened by lots of sugar.
I was shocked when I first met, still in secondary school in Israel at the time, students a year or two older than me who had been alumni of my Israeli secondary school and had begun their army service. I remember how one such young man came back with raw, hateful emotions about Palestinians and revengeful blind and violent language. Then, a few years later, came Rabin and Arafat. It was what turned out to be the last return of a more just, equal, fair and also intellectual Israel or the hope thereof (it is still there, but it has not been in control for nearly half of my lifetime). Much of the old welfare provisions, even the famous Kibbutzim, no longer are anything of what they once were, though there are still a few left – shadows of the past really.
What we got instead is the growth of mostly unchallenged extreme nationalist views on both sides, not helped by bias and interference from the outside against or for either side of the conflict. It was the combination of Russian- and American- and later French-Jewish waves of immigration, mostly from small regions, nearly all coming from divided and racist realities, that they carried with them. They wanted to be free and no longer compromise. Some, with little means, got free or reduced rate housing in controversial areas, beyond the Green Line, a cynical style of politics to people with few choices or lack of awareness. Others moved there deliberately to live-out their Jewish fantasies undisturbed, or so they thought or hoped, and reclaim more of “God’s given land”, more than what laws and wars had settled on decades earlier.
Netanyahu represents a world of simple populist politics, a Jewish version thereof. Easy slogans underpinned with right or far-right, sometimes religious fundamentalist uncompromising ideology, neoliberal economics, aided by coalitions with people like Trump and Bolsonaro, most recently even, it is hard to swallow, with Saudi Arabia at the height of its atrocities in Yemen. Arafat had tried to use a new strategy too. Whilst some found it hard to believe, those who disagreed with him made things hard, he hesitated a lot, and his internal and ideological enemies later returned with a vengeance.
The neighbours of Israel likewise were supported by hardcore dictators and fundamentalists at the same time. Not only the old autocratic rulers Hussein, Gaddafi, Assad but also Ayatollah-led Iran, and later movements like Hamas, the Islamic Brotherhood, Islamic Jihad, Hezbollah, Al Qaida and Daesh. They provided a rationale to an uncompromising iron fist politics by Israels leaders.
But there are pacifists and non-violent peacemakers on the other side too. They have a hard time. In Israel, there is a chance every so often to change the leaders. So far, it is unbelievable but true and for a generation now, reason, morals and intellect are not winning the day, toughness, big words and posturing do. I pray that we will see a return of the hope we felt in the early 1990s, on both sides. And that next time societies are not so fragile, that they allow one fanatic and one bullet to derange rightful aspirations of many, to trigger decades of entrenchment. They always try to extinguish hopes and goodness with violence, hate and bloodshed. It is their tactic, it enrages people, and keeps the fires burning.
Israel has still not gotten over the murder of one of its former elected leaders. And what have they got in return? Double Espresso, with no sugar!
The perpetrator of the Nice attack is said to have been troubled, a woman beater, separated, involved in petty criminal activities. The same was true of some of the Paris attackers, or of Mohammed Emwazi, the killer in a gay club in in Orlando, of Mohammed Emwazi, the so called Jihadi John of Daesh, and many more. It doesn’t just apply to terror attacks in the name of a fantasy version of Islam, distant from how most Muslims live their lives. Take people like Anders Breivic or David Copeland, in fact any number of terrorist or self imagined “liberation assailants.” Without going too deep into these specific cases, what I am going to say may apply to any of them . There are many examples across the world.
Even if the attacks were planned and premeditated, violent movements prey on young insecure men to exploit their vulnerabilities, and vulnerable young men are attracted to them and their theories likewise. Vulnerabilities which can exist independent of any achievements like degrees or A-Levels, and more relate to issues that regard definitions of manhood, or how men are brought up, what the expectations are for them and of them by others and themselves. There is a difference between emotional maturity and achievement in any other sense.
So, before we go to blame religions and cultures, the phenomenon of violence across the world seems to be again and again an issue that has also something, perhaps crucially, to do with being a man, especially being a younger man. Something about the way men imagine themselves and the disconnect between one’s real actual limited ability and situation and the imagination of quick fixes to power, and perhaps more human overall to men and women, the wish for immediate redemptive change of fortunes.
Whilst men are still the privilege gender (by their forced yet socially constructed grip atop social orders ), there appear to be far more obstacles for men to develop real empathy for others (and hence respect for others lives) than for women. It must have something to do with this idea, as it exists in many cultures, that men must always be tough enough and non-emotional and seek some sort of glory for themselves, always in competition for bigger, stronger.
This is why some men find in hard to develop or show emotion and why they often can not deal in constructive ways with life’s frustrations. The result is that it is easier for young men in particular to engage and imagine themselves in otherwise terrible acts of murder and mass murder, and not think or care of the pain of the victims and disconnect. That is why intense work with men to channel their often blind and violent impulses and frustrations, lack of care for themselves and others, into effective inter-personal communication skills and skills for the development of their emotional maturity, are the way forward. It is more important to teach them that than teaching them any other skills.
The “real tough”, is being tough enough to talk it through to find solutions without force, to accept that you can be the looser at times, or the weaker, to learn that if you want to win you must not be stronger, but be just better, better trained, equipped, travelled and experienced. To achieve this, amongst others, we must empower more women, and more “progressive men” (men who are are emotionally mature ), and seek out boys and men at risk everywhere and work with them.
Secondly, we must fight the traps that leave men without hope or plan, be they created by regional poverty, oppression and racism or lack of opportunities. The fight against violence projected against women and others is therefore not just a feminist enterprise relevant to women, but one that also serves men, often also victims, emotionally and physically, a road that often enough also stretches into the suicide road. Suicide amongst amongst men is disproportionally higher for the very same reasons, particular when men are single, struggle in work, or have lost employment or are unemployed. Men have to grow to become strong enough not physically but emotionally, and learn coping strategies, in order to reject the idea that force against others (and the self) is an acceptable way of self affirmation, or that sacrifice, even self martyrdom counts for anything significant at all. There are some violent women too, but above and foremost, evidence shows we need to work with men to reduce violence, and that counts as much for men prone to be attracted by violent theories, as much it counts for men who engage in more personal destructive acts, usually against women and peers.
This is not all one needs to be aware of regarding violence. The reasons for violence have many facets. One common one is the mind game that certain people, due to their religion, ethnicity, physical appearance, language, colour or culture, are not really fully human or human at all, therefore giving oneself the permission to hurt these as assumed subhumans. Another problem, that also applies to women is peer pressure. But it is easier to fall victim to such believes and pressures, if the person is already preconditioned with a lack of empathy, lack of coping strategies in stress situation and lack of self management in general.
The author studied violence for several years on university research level and was engaged for several years in a peace and conflict transformation charity.
Ich habe über mehrere Jahre die Belegschaft der Co-op Bank in Angel gefragt warum es kein Anzeichen, auf meine die 7/7 verstorbene Bankangestellte Shahara Islam gibt, die auch mich bediente. Im Februar bat mich eine Managerin dies in eine E-Mail zu setzten, da auch die Belegschaft so denke, und es ihr Argument stärken würde, in den höheren Etagen der Bankverwaltung Wohlwollen dafür zu erhalten. Mein Schreiben ist unten zitiert. Am 7.7.2015 kam es schließlich zum 10. Jahrestag zu einer Andenktafel. Ic
h war dabei als Angestellte und ein paar Kunden sie öffentlich enthüllten und stand mit ihnen einige Minuten schweigend vor der Bank zum Andenken.
Today I stood with staff at a small remembrance in the Angel Branch. There was also a journalist from the local paper there (a local Islington Newspaper) taking pictures. Many of the staff did not know Ms. Islam, who died when a suicide bomber blew up the bus in which she was, but some did.
I think somewhere all understood she was one of them. There were photos of her in her co-op bank uniform. I also heard for the first time that a co-op bank colleague was with her on the bus and survived and has recently given birth to a child.
After putting flowers on the desk, promoted by the over eager local journalist, who almost became the ceremonial master, we all walked outside and stood maybe three minutes still in front of the branch. Before I left, I said to staff, now you know that if one of you dies in such tragic
circumstances, customers will remember you! One staff member thought that it is possible that Ms. Islam’s family is currently for Hajj in Saudi Arabia. I thought it would be a good place to be in such a heavy week.
Below is my (slightly modified) e-mail that I posted to the manageress in February, after they asked me to write in, to strengthen their case. Prior to this I had on various occasions prompted the bank, why there wasn’t a plaque or something to remember her.
From: Daniel Zylbersztajn <daniel@xxxxxxxx>
Date: 17 February 2015
Subject: Where is the memorial Plaque for Shahara Islam at Angel Branch?
Manageress of the Angel
Branch of the Co-operative Bank
1 Islington High Street
London N1 9TR
I always wondered why Co-op Bank Angel Branch can not have a memorial plaque somewhere in the bank to the respectful remembrance of the former staff Shahara Islam.
I think it is appalling for n
othing to be inside the branch to remember her, nearly ten years after the terrible events that took part in London, inside the Angel branch, where she once worked. A plaque is not very expensive. Nobody so young and so extraordinarily violently taken from amongst us should be forgotten.
I work as a journalist a lot on remembrance and
have written on remembrance of the shoa / holocaust and the victims of terrorism in Munich 1972, an issue I also was invited to lecture at Edge Hill University in Liverpool.
I believe on a personal level that because I knew Shahara, as somebody who served me, even though I never expected the significance of her serving me, I should extend my interest in to the remembrance of Shahara in the local branch she once worked in. I am aware there are memorials for all the victims at various sites, but remembrance must include little signifiers at places a person is remembered to have lived or worked, that counts for staff as much as for customers in this case.
It can not be that Angel branch has a p
laque to signify the location for the Monopoly game, but nothing to remind us of the terrorism loss this place suffered.
Co-op Bank customer since the early 90s who uses the Angel, London branch as my regular branch.
Broadsheet London Correspondent to Germany
As the Western world recovers from the echoes of terrorism in Paris, in Munich Germany, occupants of the Olympic Village argue about how the acts of terrorism during the Olympic Games 1972 are remembered.
In autumn 2014 the inhabitants of the Olympic Village in Munich rejected the proposal for a memorial site to commemorate the slaughter of almost the entire Israeli Olympic team. Signatures were collected to prevent the winning design to be erected on a hill near the former Israeli team house in the Olympic Village.
Many journalists and camera teams followed the unfolding drama in 1972 from precisely that hill, which gives full view of the Israeli house in Connollystreet 31. Nearly half of the Olympic village’s current inhabitants, mostly private owners of the many flats in which once the Olympic teams lived, argued, that the memorial site would destroy the hill on which their children engage in snow fun activities during the winter months (see www.sueddeutsche.de/muenchen/streit-um-gedenkort-fuer-olympia-attentat-das-ist-unser-schlittenberg-1.2163074). The Bavarian State has now proposed to erect the memorial slightly more to the East, and yet again there was hostility. This, it was argued, was the „students hill.“ On Monday the 12th of January 2015 the city of Munich is hosting a civic meeting in which residents can make decisions about the memorial site. Amongst the invited guests are Bavarian Minister for Culture, the Munich Jewish Museum, Nazi Concentration-site Flossbuerg Memorial Site and the chosen architects Brueckner and Brueckner whose design was chosen as the best amongst a handful of independent international proposals.
Journalist Daniel Zylbersztajn, now based in London, grew up in the Olympic Village when his parents moved there in 1973. As far as he knows his was the only Jewish family there. He writes about the controversy concerning the memorial site and growing up Jewish there.
Part of this text was lead column (Feuilleton) of the German Jewish Jüdische Allgemeine on 8//1/15
When, back in 1972, members of the radical Palestinian Black September Movement killed and blew up eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team, the „happy games“ were to “go on” after a day of mourning, although some had requested that the games should be stopped.
The fun was not to be interrupted equally these days, when the post-Olympic residents of the Munich Olympic village protested against a proposal to establish a permanent memorial site at the edge of the Olympic Village. They argued that the site was “their snow fun hill” and that “no one could protect such a site against vandalism”
I am a former resident of the Olympic Village and also Jewish. In 1973, when I was only three years old, my parents moved into the village, as they had planned prior to the tragic events of September 1972. Most of the flats of the village were for sale to the general public. My father did not want to change plans because of what had taken part, Quite to the contrary, he even considered the purchase of flats opposite the Israeli House to rent out. Nobody wanted to buy these flats then, and hence they were particularly affordable. In the end, he did not go ahead with that.
I explain the behaviour of my father, a Shoa survivor, as him having thrown in the towel. Any hope he must have had for a new Germany, symbolised by state of the art modern international Olympic Village, and without loaded history, was gone after September 1972. By then one street of the Olympic village was no longer different from other Munich streets, whose Jewish residents had vanished during the Third Reich. I say that knowing full well that Germans were not the key perpetrators in 1972, yet the burden of guilt lay still on them, having not been able to adequately protect the Israeli Olympians. Not to say that German lack of power did not in some form or shape relate to 1945. Fatally wrong decisions on political and police levels amongst German leaders were contributory factors.
The new post-Olympic residents of the village enjoy and enjoyed life in the Olympic Village. It is an oasis of good living. On its top-level residents live without motorised traffic, children can play without danger. I did so too. And in the winter we all went for snow fun activities like on sleighs. The hill opposite Connolly Street, on which now the memorial site was planned, was the highest, standing approximately 20 Meters tall. But there was an even better hill, a walk of 15 minutes further into the Olympic Park, the Olympiaberg (transl. Olympic Hill), over double in height, created from the rubble of the Munich that was destroyed during the second world war. The proposed construction of a memorial site on the Connolly Hill is hence not the end of childhood fun, at most perhaps inconvenient. If one considers that so far there were only 10 days of snow in Munich this winter, the protests regarding the hill are deeply questionable.
Forgetting and Remembering
During the first 20 years in the 1970s and 80s, the village’s new occupants liked to forget what happened here. It was rarely mentioned, nor was it visible, except for those who lived in Connollystreet near the former Israeli House. Every 5th of September state and city officials and representatives of the Munich Jewish community put down flower wreaths in front of a memorial stone at Connollystrasse 31, which lists the name of the deceased in German and Hebrew.
But back in 1984, I think it was – I was in the midst of my identity forming teenage years – I felt that nobody really cared about what happened in the village. And so I decided on my own account to write it on the village’s walls: “Vergesst nicht 5.9.1972”!, – Don’t forget 5thSept. Due to my efforts at night this little sentence emerged repeatedly in black letters at various strategic points in the village that I had chosen. Amongst them one at the entrance of the university sports centre located at the rear of Connollystreet, as well as near the entrance into the village, past the underground station. My childhood, my growing up, part of my Jewish identity was in these few words on the wall, a childhood that was quite different to that of all other residents of the Olympic village, yet nobody would notice. How many others were Jewish I would never quite know, at least I thought for a long time, that I was the only Jewish youth. As I wrote slogans on the village’s wall, somebody once caught me and emptied my pot of black colour over my head. He was angry that I smeared the walls, I shouted back, that I only tried to make sure people would not forget what had happened here.
A slim man wearing a facial masque stands on the top level of Connollystreet 31: Men behind him stare timidly out of a window. These stills are not my childhood’s first. But I do remember them from quite early on. They stem from the live TV reports of the unfolding drama of 1972 and they are deep in my memory. How sad and uncertain my parents must have felt, as it became clear in the morning hours of the 6th of September 1972 what had happened, given that my parents had
decided to move into the village, and earlier still, some 25 years earlier, in fact for my dad and mum, to move to Germany in spite of all that the Germans had done to their families. Children notice these kinds of things even at the tender age of two to three years, and the many documentaries and films about 1972 that would follow only deepened my memory thereof.
When later Israeli relatives came to visit us, we often walked with them to Connollystreet 31, where we would stand for many minutes in front of the memorial stone. It were difficult moments for them. I knew very early on that here something must have happened that moved my family members deeply, although I would only understand it later. Often they would discuss if it was right that we lived there. Many years later, and having left the village, I would myself become that visitor with obligatory visits to the memorial stone.
The Good Life
But it would be a lie, if I could not affirm that it was otherwise a very good childhood in the Olympic Village, with its modern flair and its many play and sport options and a good primary school and if I was not Jewish, perhaps I would also like the original vintage poster from 1972 that residents have hung up in one of the hallways of the village for of nostalgic reasons,
depicting Olympic Shooting, How ironic, for it was the blunder of the armed Bavarian policemen, who were supposed to liberate the Israelis, that significantly contributed to the tragic end. Maybe I would even join those protests against the new memorial site because it takes away the fun of kids, and forces them to deal with something nobody can change.
The Olympic Park in Munich and all that is part of it is today part and parcel of life in Munich. Many sports and leisure activities take part here. But if you travel outside of Munich through the world, I myself have lived in London since 1991, one encounters a different picture of Olympia 1972. Munich 1972 runs parallel to Mexico 1968, Moscow 1980 and Los Angeles 1984. Neither the medals once earned here nor the good life is what people know here. Munich is referenced for nothing but the terror act, at best, as a former home ground of the soccer club F.C. Bayern. Not that the residents of the village welcomed the potential construction of the new soccer stadium, which was initially planned, East of the village. A campaign of theirs prevented that and caused the stadium’s alternative location in the far North of Munich. They are thus an engaged lot, these residents, with protests also against a magnetic railway link near the village, that was to speed up the journey between the airport of Munich and the city, and the purchase of shares by residents of the village’s shopping mall to determine what shops can take a footing there, and then most recently those signatures against the memorial site. Many people can learn from them, such citizens’ initiatives are exemplary, but they do not always see the wider picture. They seem not to realize that many outside of Munich believe that a memorial site that deals with the terror of 1972 in depth is expected by many and yet missing. No positive residential engagement here.
Yet today is not 1984. There were compensation payments to the relatives of the murdered victims, and whilst one or the other apology is still missing and may never be made, nobody can say the victims have been forgotten. Whilst I was still discussing the lack of a memorial in the village with Ankie Rekhess-Spitzer, the wife of the murdered Israeli Olympian Andre Spitzer in 1990, a second memorial stone was erected in front of the Olympic Stadium in 1995, which mentions all 11 killed athletes and one policeman who also lost his life in 1972. For a couple of years, a public signpost is welcoming visitors as they leave the underground station on which visitors can learn in German, English, French and Hebrew about the events that took part in the village in 1972 and where they took place in the village. This is important because all who venture into the village have to pass the signpost, and in that sense, it is similar to my graffiti of 1984.
The majority of the flats in which the Israeli Olympic team was accommodated in 1972 are today the property of the Max Planck Institute, a Munich based scientific institute. They serve as their „guest housing.“ If anyone can sleep in these rooms remains an open question. It was Max Planck who remained in Germany during the Third Reich, where he kept a soft status quo, whilst his Jewish colleges had to leave Germany or suffered worse. Adjacent to the flats of the former Israeli Olympic Team live ordinary people. During my last visit in December 2014, a jolly and bright Santa Clause lamp welcomed visitors in front of Connollystreet 31, right next to the memorial stone in front of the house. Some years ago there was also a note in Hebrew, requesting that mourners do not pluck flowers. Visiting mourners as the real nightmare for locals. No wonder there is hostility.
In Israel, there are many streets in which terror acts happened, in which bombs or suicide bombers exploded taking innocent people with them. And still, life continues Israelis are famous to get up again after terrible events. Often it is but a small plaque that reminds one of what once happened here or there. Why should it be different in Munich at the site of terror against Israeli athletes?
It is because the murder of the Israeli Olympians in 1972 is of particular relevance, just like Mexico City 1968, which stands as a symbolic point in African American history. Olympic Games should not be politicized, but are political anyway, last so in Sochi concerning LGBT rights. But sport is at times also a surrogate for conflict and also a way to overcome it and engage even between supposed enemies in a game with clear rules, and so it allows young men and women of all creed, nationality, colour, ethnic or religious identity to participate in sports activities with each other. The Olympic Movement likes to believe that this creates ties beyond narrow confinements and therefore represents hope. Still, Israeli athletes and teams, in particular, are often subject to boycotts by others, something that carries particular echoes in Germany and the Olympic Games of 1936.
No organisation may see athletes as political trophies, whose lives are risked or even violently ended in order to make a political point. That is why Munich 1972 serves as a warning. It is the very reason why one should not forget and why a big educational memorial site has been suggested, one that can be true to the gigantic dimensions of the Olympic site and the greatness of loss of life. It is certainly more important than the vast starship like construct the car manufacturer BMW was able to erect in celebration of its vehicles on one of the former Olympic car parks in Munich.
That is why the flats owned by the Max Planck Institute ought to be sold and changed into a memorial site or museum. The era of a rather embarrassing and grotesque guest house must end. But due to the fact that the village is a protected national monument since 1998, any such construction within the building could prove tricky. Luckily there is an alternative if the hill design is really to be rejected too. Above the Olympic underground station lies a large disused bus station, that was once hoped to become the site for a new hotel. It seems ideal as a memorial site and museum, given its accessibility, even though it is not within direct sight of Connollystrasse 31
Whether it is on the grounds of the old bus stop, on the Connollyhill or a few 100 meters East as has recently been argued, it is right that the village bears more than just a plaque or memorial stone. Lightness and happiness are intermixed in the village with lives’ darkest hours. This fact is just as important in the good education of children who grow up in the village, as is their right to carefree winter fun when they are younger.
Democracy and Citizenship Education
Nobody can bring back to life those who have died back then. But the names of the lost Israeli Olympians will remain linked with the village and the 1972 Olympics. Residents of the village cannot escape this fate and must share it actively. Beyond a memorial site and museum, a foundation could assist in encounters in sports by people who are otherwise in conflict with each other.
May they live conscious and good in the village. Yes, they are allowed to show that in its conceptualisation and reality the Olympic Village and Olympic Park is a place in which life is very good, without cars, a shopping mall, artificial springs, and much green. But there must be clear sight of the fact what the village stands for around the globe, namely as the location of terrible unforgeable events.
Democracy must mean more than the collection of signatures, but also to understand history beyond local contexts and to act accordingly. On the evening of Monday 15thof January 2015 the Munich residents of the local area, including all residents of the Olympic village will meet in a civic meeting to discuss the memorial site and vote on it.
(c) 2013 Zylbersztajn, Alle rechte Vorbehalten, (C) 2013 All Rights Reserved
Verdacht auf unbehandeltes Trauma bei Attentätern sagen forensische Experten.
Das Video Michael Adebolajos in der er vor der Handykamera mit Blut verschmierten Händen eine Aussage macht, wurde weltweit gesehen. Aber zu welchen Folgerungen kommen Experten in der forensischen Psychologie hierzu?
Dieser Bericht wurde in den Medien nicht veröffentlicht. Ich würde mich darüber freuen von Lesern zu hören wie nützlich sie diese Interviews aber fanden. Bitte hinterlassen Sie deshalb einen Kommentaram Ende.
Terror in London. Possible untreated trauma of murderers could possibly have led to the murder of Lee Rigby say experts.
After the Woolwich murder of Lee Rigby I interviewed two foresic psychologists, leaders in their field, about the “bloody hands video” that circulated arund the world. An unusual and interesting and informative assessment of the psychology of those who murdered the soldier Drummer Lee Rigby.
Use googletranslate or similar to get a reasonable English translation (simply put the entire link http://wp.me/p2dMvS-Al inside.
Verdacht auf unbehandeltes Trauma bei Attentätern sagen forensische Experten
Das Video Michael Adebolajos in der er vor der Handykamera mit Blut verschmierten Händen eine Aussage macht wurde weltweit gesehen. Aber zu welchen Folgerungen kommen Experten in der forensischen Psychologie hierzu?
Daniel Zylbersztajn befragte zwei Experten in menschlicher Gewalt.. Dr. Claire Lee ist Expertin in Kriminalitätsentwicklung, Entscheidungsvorgängen am Tatort, und Persönlichkeitsstörungen. Sie arbeitet an der Universität Portsmouth im internationalen Forschungszentrum für forensische Psychologie. Dr. Jeff Victoroff ist ein Arzt und Professor für klinische Neurologie und Psychiatrie an der Universität von Südkalifornien. Seine Spezialisierung liegt bei menschlicher Aggression, der Psychologie von Terroristen und Selbstmordattentäterin und er ist Mitglied vieler internationaler Gremien über Terrorismus und Aggression unter anderem für die NATO und die Vereinten Nationen.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Wie würden Sie die Aussagen von Michael Adebolajo vor einer Handykamera auslegen, nachdem er gerade den britischen Soldaten Lee Rigby auf offener Straße brutal zerhackt hatte. Er entschuldigt sich sogar, dass Frauen dies sehen mussten. Liegt hier etwa eine mentale Erkrankung vor?
Nee: Es ist ein Beispiel von Radikalisierung, im Gegensatz zu einer mentalen Störung, weil es ihm möglich ist, sein Verhalten in dieser Extremsituation zu erklären und zu rechtfertigen.
Victoroff: Genaues kann man aus dem Video nicht schließen. Adebolajo zeigt in dem Video weder Anzeichen, die auf Wahn, interne Dränge oder schizophrene Störungen deuten lassen, aber man kann es nicht ausschließen. Auch ist der Grad seiner Erregung ist eher untypisch für eine starke Depression. Die relativ deutliche Rede und der stabiler Stand und Gang machen auch einen Rausch, wie durch Alkohol, unwahrscheinlich. Was seine Entschuldigung gegenüber Frauen betrifft, ist es schwer zu beurteilen, ob es eher was mit seinem Temperament, seiner Erziehung, oder kulturell Gelerntem zu tun hat, oder ob er in der Tat ein kleines bisschen Reue zeigt. Es können aber auch derartige psychodynamischer Faktoren vorliegen, für die man fünf Jahre Untersuchung braucht, um sie zu entdecken.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Sie sagen er erklärt seine Tat mit relative Klarheit. Ein Akt eines rationell denkenden Terroristen also?
Victoroff:Nach meinem besten Wissen ist Rationalität keine menschliche Eigenschaft. Sie meinen eher das Fehlen einer starken Denkstörung, so wie etwa ein Wahn? Aber Sie sollten beachten, dass Menschen die nicht an einer mentalen Krankheit leiden, dennoch nach Schemen unzähliger bewusster und emotionaler Neigung handeln. Nimmt man die Rede Adebolajos buchstäblich, dann kann sein emotionales Motiv für seine Gewalttat zu begehen, eine Kombination der folgenden vier Szenarien sein:
Eine Reaktion auf echte Vorkommnisse, vor allem die nicht-islamische westliche Militärbesetzung auf hauptsächlich islamisch bewohnten Boden
Die Art wie durch seine eigene Persönlichkeit diese Ereignisse interpretiert und gefühlt werden. Zum Beispiel alles in „schwarz-weiß“ zu sehen, was ganz typisch bei Fundamentalisten ist und die Wahrnehmungsflexibilität mindert.
Einflüsse von Personen die ihm als wichtig und gebührend erscheinen, wie zum Beispiel bestimmte Imame.
Ein Auslöser aufgrund einer persönlichen Verletzung oder Demütigung, und welche er seinen politischen Feinden zuspielt, oder so irrelevant ist, wie der Abbruch einer Beziehung, also ein Racheakt oder eine verlagerter Wut.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Adebolajo befand sich aber nach Aussagen der englischen Medien seit mindestens sechs Jahren im Zirkel militanter islamischer Randgruppen. Ist so eine Assoziation auch genug, um einen Menschen zu solchen Gewaltakten zu bewegen, oder bedarf es dazu gewisser psychologischer Schwächen?
Nee: Je mehr Risikofaktoren bestehen, umso wahrscheinlicher ist das Ausgeliefertseins zur potenziellen Indoktrinierung. Zu solchen Faktoren gehören alle möglichen soziologischen und individuellen Faktoren. Zum Beispiel sind die soziologischen eine Abstammung von einer marginalisierten Gruppe, als auch ein versperrter Zugang zum Erziehungssystem, zu gesundheitlicher Verpflegung, oder zum Arbeitsmarkt. Das Erfahren von Rassismus und rassistischen Attacken, persönliche oder familiäre Traumata, Misshandlung, sowie das Fehlen von Respekt durch andere in Autoritätsstellungen gehören ebenfalls zu diesen Faktoren. Sie hinterlassen alle ein Gefühl der gesellschaftlichen Ausschließung. Wenn man zu diesen soziologischen Faktoren, individuelle Faktoren zieht, dann wird es wahrscheinlicher, dass sich jemand durch solche Bewegungen indoktrinieren lässt.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Sie nannten auch individuellen Faktoren?
Nee: Zu individuellen Faktoren gehören Erinnerungen an traumatische Vorfälle, ein niedriges Selbstbewusstsein und eine Ausgesetztheit externer Kontrolle der Lebensumstände, sowie verschiedene Persönlichkeitsstörungen, sowie narzisstisches oder unsoziales Verhalten. Es ist also eher unwahrscheinlich, dass sich jemand solchen Bewegungen anschließen würde, ohne dass einige dieser Faktoren zutreffen.
Victoroff: Individuen haben viele Zugehörigkeiten, Schulkollegen, Religion, Familie oder ein Fußballverein. Irgendwann in Adebolajos Leben verstärkte sich sein Zugehörigkeitsgefühl mit denen, welche wütend auf das Benehmen des nicht-islamischen Westens sind, und zum Ausschluss aller anderen Zugehörigkeiten.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Was sie da beide sagen, hört sich an, als ob nahezu jeder zum Terroristen gedrängt werden kann. Ihre genannten Faktoren sind ja bekannte Muster aus dem Leben vieler?
Fast jeder kann zum Terroristen gedrängt werden. Aber einige wissenschaftliche Beweise suggerieren, dass nur eine kleine Untergruppe sich tatsächlich bewaffnet und die Zivilbevölkerung angreift. Depression, angeborene Aggression, Verlustgefühle und posttraumatische Belastungsstörung (PTBS) und eine Tendenz die Welt in Schwarz und Weiß zu sehen sind wohl die entscheidenden Faktoren, die jemanden dazu bringen politischen Beschwerden mit Gewaltakten zu beantworten, etwa eine Person unter Zehn oder gar hunderttausend Anderen, eher selten.
Nee: Es mag selten sein, aber immer mehr Menschen sind davon betroffen, und zwar in Gesellschaften auf der ganzen Welt. Der Grund ist die sich global ausgebreitete Rezession.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Oh das ist ja Armut als einer der Hintergründe. Bei diesem Fall in London reden aber alle von Religion und Ethnizität?
Nee: Ich weiß nicht welche Entscheidungskriterien die Regierungsanalytiker benutzen, aber in den Medien liegt der Schwerpunkt wahrscheinlich zu oft nur bei Ethnizität.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Es heisst, dass Adebolajo wahrscheinlich in Kenia vom dortigen Geheimdienst gefoltert worden ist, und dass man ihn auch mit sexueller Misshandlung gedroht hätte. Danach wurde er von den englischen Sicherheitskräften verfolgt. Er sei dadurch ein verschlossener Mann geworden, im Gegenteil zu vorher. Vom Mittäter Michael Adebowale wird gesagt, dass er miterleben musste, wie ein Freund aufgrund eines brutalen rassistischen Angriffs starb, bei dem auch er selber vom Täter verletzt worden war. Welchen Einfluss können solche Erlebnisse haben, ins besondere, wenn es schon ein vorheriges Interesse an militanten Bewegungen gab?
Nee: Wenn sich diese Tatsachen über die Folter und den miterlebten Mord als wahrhaft erweisen, besteht bei mir überhaupt kein Zweifel, dass solche Erfahrungen die beiden verletzlicher gemacht haben könnten, um durch radikalen Gruppen indoktriniert zu werden. Solche Erfahrungen sind aber traumatisch bedingt, im Gegensatz zu psychotischen mentalen Erkrankungen.
Victoroff: …und sie mögen auch Rache gegen die Leute suchen, von denen sie glauben dass sie die persönliche Verletzungen verantwortlich sind. PTBS stört die emotionale Regulierung und senkt die Schwellgrenze, bei der unproportionale Reaktionen provoziert werden können. Aber eine Komplikation von PTBS war auf alle Fälle kein Faktor beim Mord selber. Nichts im Video lässt darauf schließen, dass er bei der Tat in einem dissoziativen Zustand war.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Wer kümmert sich denn in Großbritannien, um Menschen die Traumata erfahren haben?
Nee: Behandlungszentren im mentalen Bereich. Der Überweisung zu einer Behandlung geht über den Hausarzt. Aber diese Behandlungszentren sind in Großbritannien vollkommen überlastet. Es ist möglich, dass Tausende, niemals um Hilfe fragen, und gerade dann, wenn sie sich ohnehin von der Gesellschaft ausgeschlossen fühlen.
Daniel Zylbersztajn: Und hätte man den beiden helfen können? Sollten Fachkräfte im mentalen Gesundheitsbereich viel öfter mithelfen? Wenn die Effekte der traumatischen Erfahrungen in einer Therapie aufgearbeitet worden wären, dann wäre es weniger wahrscheinlich gewesen, dass Adebowale und Adebolaja ihre Missstände durch das Aufsuchen einer radikalen Gruppe gelöst hätten.
Victoroff: Aber echte mentale Erkrankung ist oft gar nicht vorhanden. Ich glaube nicht, dass eine erweiterte Überwachung durch Experten im Bereich der mentalen Gesundheit Terrorakte ernsthaft verringern würde.
Laut Aussagen einer englischen Sozialarbeiterin im mentalen Gesundheitsbereich gegenüber Daniel Zylbersztajn, ist mentale Gesundheitsversorgung für Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund ein offenes Minenfeld. Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund werden im Gegensatz zu anderen disproportional als chronisch mental krank diagnostiziert „und mit Drogen voll gestopft,“ oder überhaupt gar nicht aufgenommen. Psychotherapie für nicht chronische mentale Zustände wie PTBS ist eher eine rare Behandlung. Deshalb gibt es viel Misstrauen gegenüber diesem Sektor unter Migranten, und oft bestehen auch erhöhte Stigma bezüglich einer Diagnose mentaler Probleme und bezüglich der psychologischer Versorgung. Kürzungen in den Budgets der mentalen Gesundheitsversorgung in England aufgrund der Rezession haben diese Situation nur noch verschärft. Wie auch Nee bestätigte, viele Betroffene erhalten keinerlei Hilfe.
When I went to Woolwich yesterday to examine the scene after the murder, it wasn’t long until I witnessed a backlash action by the far right organisation EDL. Local young people of minority backgriund suspected it and spoke of fear of being penalized for the actions of some crazed loonies. There were some exchanges between the police and the EDL supporters, absurdly some of the EDL people had full pints of beer, a woman came with something that looked like a Martini, as if they had emerged from a pub.
I managed to quietly speak with three EDL supportes who explained to me quietly that they had enough, and felt urge to protest. Not all however were quiet there was quite some shouting and posturing as well in general. Some of the fans were rather young (15-18, and they seemed to have come from across the entire area).